“Visual Acuity” (20/20 Vision) is just one of 17 Neuro-Visual skills required for proper vision. However, “Visual Acuity” is the only skill that is regularly diagnosed and treated.

Children and adults with Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD) or other vision deficits in one or more of the 16 other visual skills are often left to struggle without diagnosis, therapy or support. Undiagnosed and untreated Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD) can negatively impact reading, learning, balance, motor coordination, and everyday life.

They can also lead to mis-diagnosis’ of Learning Disabilities when assessment for all 17 Neuro-Visual skills is not completed prior to the LD diagnosis.

Compare the symptoms of Dyslexia or Learning Disabilities to those caused by Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD). Can you Tell the Difference?

80% of diagnosed Learning Disabilities (LD) with “Individual Education Plans” (IEP’s) in Canada are reading based. Studies have shown a significant number of children with LD IEP’s have Neuro-Visual deficits that could be the underlying cause of their symptoms.

Common signs of a person with Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD) may include:

  • Unable to read, write or spell at grade level
  • Labelled lazy, careless, “not trying hard enough”, or “behaviour problem”
  • Tests well orally, but not written
  • Poor self esteem, feels dumb, easily frustrated about school
  • Difficulty sustaining attention or focus
  • Learns best through hands-on experience vs written
  • Complains of dizziness, headaches or stomach aches while focussing
  • Confused by letters, numbers, sequences, or words
  • Reading or writing shows repetitions, additions, omissions, transpositions, substitutions, or reversals in letters, numbers and/or words
  • Complains of feeling or seeing non-existent movement while writing, reading or copying
  • Complains of seeing double words or letters
  • Seems to have difficulty with vision but standard visual acuity exams show nothing
  • Reads and re-reads with little comprehension
  • Lacks depth perception or peripheral vision
  • Spells phonetically and inconsistently.
  • Loss of place when reading or skipping lines
  • Omitting or inserting words
  • Trouble with writing or copying. Pencil grip is not standard. Handwriting varies or is illegible.
  • Clumsy, uncoordinated, poor at ball or team sports
  • Difficulties with fine and/or gross motor skills and tasks; prone to motion-sickness.
  • Often confuses left/right or over/under
  • Computing math shows dependence on physical manipulatives. Understands concepts but cannot complete paper assignments.

Please view the Vision and Learning Symptom & Observation Checklist to help educate yourself on where vision problems may interfere with academics and/or quality of life.

This video highlights the difference between two readers, who could both see “20/20” and passed all routine eye examinations without problems. See if you can spot the difference in how accurately the eyes move.

The 17 Visual Skills required for proper vision are:

  • Eye Movement Control
  • Simultaneous Focus at Far
  • Sustaining Focus at Far
  • Simultaneous Focus at Near
  • Sustaining Focus at Near
  • Simultaneous Alignment at Far
  • Sustaining Alignment at Far
  • Simultaneous Alignment at Near
  • Sustaining Alignment at Near
  • Central Vision (Visual Acuity)
  • Peripheral Vision
  • Depth Awareness
  • Color Perception
  • Gross Visual-Motor
  • Fine Visual-Motor
  • Visual Perception
  • Visual Integration

To learn more about the impact of vision development on academic achievement and quality of life, please visit our resource and education section.